New Place Command Shortcut
This one has been a long time coming, but there is now a keyboard shortcut for the Place command (File > Place). The shortcut is Cmd+Shift+P (Mac OS) or Ctrl+Shift+P (Windows).
It doesn’t match the InDesign shortcut, but at least it’s something. And, yes, you could have created your own shortcut in previous versions of Illustrator by choosing Edit > Keyboard Shortcuts (which you can still do).